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Laparoscopy vs minilaparotomy and full laparotomy preserves circulatory but not peritoneal and pulmonary immune responses

: Jesch, N.K.; Kuebler, J.F.; Nguyen, H.; Nave, H.; Bottlaender, M.; Teichmann, B.; Braun, A.; Vieten, G.; Ure, B.M.


Journal of pediatric surgery 41 (2006), No.6, pp.1085-1092
ISSN: 0022-3468
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
laparoscopy; laparotomy; trauma response; macrophage; superoxide anion; OX-6; CD54; rat model; nitric oxide; cytokine

PURPOSE: Laparoscopy has been associated with lower inflammatory responses. However, it has been postulated that minilaparotomy, in contrast to full laparotomy, is equally minimally invasive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate local, systemic, and distant organ immune responses after different surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity, such as minilaparotomy, full laparotomy, and laparoscopy, in a small animal model. METHODS: Male Lewis rats received a permanent central venous catheter and were randomized to 4 groups (n = 6 per group). The animals were subjected to anesthesia alone (control), minilaparotomy (1 cm), full laparotomy (7 cm), or laparoscopy for 60 minutes. Blood was collected via the central venous catheter before as well as 1 hour and 6 hours after the start of intervention. Peritoneal and bronchoalveolar lavages, as well as heart puncture, were performed after 24 hours. RESULTS: All surgical interventions led to a significant migration of polymorphonucleocytes into the abdominal cavity. Full laparotomy resulted in a significant increase in nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages as compared with control. Macrophage nitric oxide production after laparoscopy and minilaparotomy was not significantly different. A shift in the expression of OX-6 and CD54 was only detected after full laparotomy. Systemically, O(2)(-) release by circulating mononuclear cells was significantly increased after minilaparotomy and full laparotomy, but not after laparoscopy. The systemic levels of IL6 were significantly accelerated only after full laparotomy, with a maximum after 6 hours. In the lungs, function of alveolar macrophages was not altered in any group. CONCLUSIONS: Any approach to the peritoneal cavity causes local inflammatory responses. Full laparotomy alters peritoneal macrophage functions more pronouncedly than does minilaparotomy or laparoscopy. Systemic inflammatory responses, such as free oxygen radical release, are significantly increased by both minilaparotomy and full laparotomy, whereas laparoscopy preserves systemic immune function. Our results may lead to further preference for the laparoscopic approach over minilaparotomy and full laparotomy.