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Electron-selective contacts via ulta-thin organic interface dipoles for silicon organic heterojunction solar cells

: Reichel, C.; Würfel, U.; Winkler, K.; Schleiermacher, H.-F.; Kohlstädt, M.; Unmüssig, M.; Messmer, C.A.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.


Journal of applied physics 123 (2018), No.2, Art. 024505, 10 pp.
ISSN: 0021-8979
ISSN: 1089-7550
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Photovoltaik; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Neuartige Photovoltaik-Technologien; Herstellung und Analyse von hocheffizienten Solarzellen; organische Solarzelle

In the last years, novel materials for the formation of electron-selective contacts on n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells were explored as an interfacial layer between the metal electrode and the c-Si wafer. Besides inorganic materials like transition metal oxides or alkali metal fluorides, also interfacial layers based on organic molecules with a permanent dipole moment are promising candidates to improve the contact properties. Here, the dipole effect plays an essential role in the modification of the interface and effective work function of the contact. The amino acids L-histidine, L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, glycine, and sarcosine, the nucleobase adenine, and the heterocycle 4-hydroxypyridine were investigated as dipole materials for an electron-selective contact on the back of p- and n-type c-Si with a metal electrode based on aluminum (Al). Furthermore, the effect of an added fluorosurfactant on the resulting contact properties was examined. The performance of n-type c-Si solar cells with a boron diffusion on the front was significantly increased when L-histidine and/or the fluorosurfactant was applied as a full-area back surface field. This improvement was attributed to the modification of the interface and the effective work function of the contact by the dipole material which was corroborated by numerical device simulations. For these solar cells, conversion efficiencies of 17.5% were obtained with open-circuit voltages (Voc) of 625 mV and fill factors of 76.3%, showing the potential of organic interface dipoles for silicon organic heterojunction solar cells due to their simple formation by solution processing and their low thermal budget requirements.