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Distinguishing crystallization stages and their influence on quantum efficiency during perovskite solar cell formation in real-time

: Wagner, L.; Mundt, L.E.; Mathiazhagan, G.; Mundus, M.; Schubert, M.C.; Mastroianni, S.; Würfel, U.; Hinsch, A.; Glunz, S.W.

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Scientific Reports 7 (2017), Art. 14899, 6 pp.
ISSN: 2045-2322
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Photovoltaik; Neuartige Photovoltaik-Technologien; Farbstoff- und Perowskitsolarzellen

Relating crystallization of the absorber layer in a perovskite solar cell (PSC) to the device performance is a key challenge for the process development and in-depth understanding of these types of high efficient solar cells. A novel approach that enables real-time photo-physical and electrical characterization using a graphite-based PSC is introduced in this work. In our graphite-based PSC, the device architecture of porous monolithic contact layers creates the possibility to perform photovoltaic measurements while the perovskite crystallizes within this scaffold. The kinetics of crystallization in a solution based 2-step formation process has been analyzed by real-time measurement of the external photon to electron quantum efficiency as well as the photoluminescence emission spectra of the solar cell. With this method it was in particular possible to identify a previously overlooked crystallization stage during the formation of the perovskite absorber layer. This stage has significant influence on the development of the photocurrent, which is attributed to the formation of electrical pathways between the electron and hole contact, enabling efficient charge carrier extraction. We observe that in contrast to previously suggested models, the perovskite layer formation is indeed not complete with the end of crystal growth.