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Comparison of the future residual load in fifteen countries and requirements to grid-supportive building operation

: Klein, K.; Killinger, S.; Fischer, D.; Streuling, C.; Salom, J.; Cubi, E.

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International Solar Energy Society -ISES-:
EuroSun 2016. Conference Proceedings : 11th ISES EuroSun Conference, Palma (Mallorca), Spain, 11 to 14 October 2016
Freiburg/Brsg.: ISES, 2016
ISBN: 978-3-9814659-6-9
ISBN: 3-9814659-6-2
EuroSun Conference <11, 2016, Palma de Mallorca>
Conference Paper, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Thermische Anlagen und Gebäudetechnik; Gebäudeenergietechnik; Energiesystemtechnik; Betriebsführung und Gesamtenergiekonzepte; Thermische Speicher für Gebäude; Energiesystemanalyse

Many countries in the world plan to increase their share of wind and solar power. In order to efficiently utilize large amounts intermittent renewable power, flexible consumers such as buildings with heat pumps and chillers may play a crucial role. However, it is not clear how heat pumps and chillers should be operated in order to make the best use of the volatile renewable energy. For this purpose, the residual loads of 13 European countries, Great Britain, and Alberta in the year 2030 were simulated and analyzed. The term " residual load " refers to the electricity demand that is not covered with intermittent renewable systems and that, therefore, must be met by dispatchable electricity generation units. It was calculated as the difference of the wind and PV generation simulated as part of this study, and the electric load of 2011. The results show a high relative variability in the residual load in almost all analyzed countries. In winter, the lowest residual loads (i.e. the most favorable times for electricity consumption) occur either around noon (particularly in the countries with the highest amount of wind and solar power), or at night. In summer, the residual loads are usually lowest around noon, which coincides well with the typical cooling load profile of a building. PV-dominated countries show stronger daily variations in the residual load, which can be managed even with relatively small storage capacities as typically found in buildings. In contrast, in wind-dominated countries, the residual load fluctuates on longer time scales, which requires larger storages.