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Ethyl pyruvate does not require microglia for mediating neuroprotection after excitotoxic injury

: Pieroh, Philipp; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Ghadban, Chalid; Birkenmeier, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz


CNS neuroscience & therapeutics 23 (2017), No.10, pp.798-807
ISSN: 1755-5930
ISSN: 1755-5949
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IZI ()
Ethyl pyruvate; excitotoxicity; organotypic hippocampal slice culture

Aims: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) mediates protective effects after neuronal injury. Besides a direct conservation of damaged neurons, the modulation of indigenous glial cells has been suggested as one important mechanism for EP-related neuroprotection. However, the specific contribution of glial cells is still unknown.
Methods: Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) were excitotoxically lesioned by 50 μmol/L N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, for 4 hours) or left untreated. In an additional OHSC subset, microglia was depleted using the bisphosphonate clodronate (100 μg/mL) before lesion. After removal of NMDA, EP containing culture medium (0.84 μmol/L, 8.4 μmol/L, 42 μmol/L, 84 μmol/L, 168 μmol/L) was added and incubated for 72 hours. OHSC were stained with propidium iodide to visualize degenerating neurons and isolectin IB4-FITC to identify microglia. Effects of EP at concentrations of 0.84, 8.4, and 84 μmol/L (0-48 hours) were analyzed in the astrocytic scratch wound assay.
Results: EP significantly reduced neurodegeneration following induced excitotoxicity except for 168 μmol/L. For 84 μmol/L, a reduction in the microglia cells was observed. Microglia depletion did not affect neuronal survival after EP treatment. EP decelerated astrocytic wound closure at 48 hours after injury.
Conclusion: EP-mediated neuroprotection seems to be mediated by astrocytes and/or neurons.