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Detection of tetrabromobisphenol A and its mono- and dimethyl derivatives in fish, sediment and suspended particulate matter from European freshwaters and estuaries

: Kotthoff, Matthias; Rüdel, Heinz; Jürling, Heinrich

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Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 409 (2017), No.14, pp.3685-3694
ISSN: 1618-2642 (Print)
ISSN: 1618-2650 (Online)
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IME ()
brominated flame retardant; Tetrabromobisphenol A; environmental monitoring; atmospheric pressure photoionization; high-resolution mass spectrometry

An analytical method was developed for the determination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobisphenol-A-monomethyl ether (MM-TBBPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobisphenol-A-dimethyl ether (DM-TBBPA), and its valid application on fish muscle matrix (bream and sole), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediment layer samples, using only 0.5 g sample material, is demonstrated. Here, for the first time, DM-TBBPA could be determined by an LC-MS/MS-based method applying atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), using the same sample extracts for all three analytes. Samplings covered freshwater fish (bream; annually, period 2007–2013) and SPM or sediment (every second year in the period 2008–2014) at selected European sites (rivers: Tees/UK, Mersey/UK, Western Scheldt/NL, Götaälv/SE, Rhône/FR; Lake Belau/DE). TBBPA could be quantified in 13 of 36 bream samples (range about 0.5–1.2 μg kg−1 ww) and 7 of 7 sole muscle samples (range about 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1 ww). Further, it could be quantified in 11 of the 14 SPM samples (range about 0.5–9.4 μg kg−1 dw) and in both of the surface sediment layer samples (2.3–2.6 μg kg−1 dw). MM-TBBPA could be quantified in 12 of 36 bream and 4 of 7 sole muscle samples (range about 0.8–1.8 μg kg−1 ww). Further, it could be quantified in 10 of the 14 river SPM samples (range about 2.3–4.5 μg kg−1 dw) and in both lake surface sediment layer samples (5.2–5.5 μg kg−1 dw). DM-TBBPA was rarely detectable and could not be quantified above the limit of quantification in any sample.