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Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

: Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan


Journal of power sources 362 (2017), pp.349-357
ISSN: 0378-7753
ISSN: 1873-2755
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IWS ()
Lithium ion battery; Lithium sulfur battery; silicon anode; Electrolyte; High energy density

Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l−1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.