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Functionalization of gold and graphene electrodes by p-maleimido-phenyl towards thiol-sensing systems investigated by EQCM and IR ellipsometric spectroscopy

: Neubert, T.J.; Rösicke, F.; Sun, G.; Janietz, S.; Gluba, M.A.; Hinrichs, K.; Nickel, N.H.; Rappich, J.


Applied surface science 421 (2017), Pt.B, pp.755-760
ISSN: 0169-4332
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IAP ()

Electrografting of gold and graphene surfaces by functional p-(N-maleimido)phenyl groups was performed by reduction of p-(N-maleimido)phenyldiazonium tetrafluoroborate. The reduction was carried out using cyclic voltammetry coupled with micro-gravimetric measurements by means of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The overall deposited mass on gold was higher than on graphene. However, the Faradaic efficiency was lower on Au (14%) compared to graphene (22%) after the first potential scan. Subsequently, the maleimide functional groups have been tested for immobilization of terminal thiols using (4-nitrobenzyl)mercaptan for the functionalized graphene surface and a cysteine-modified peptide for the functionalized gold surface. The functionalization by p-(N-maleimido)phenyl groups and the following thiol coupling of the particular surface was proven by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE). In addition, the interaction of the tetrabutylammonium and tetrafluoroborate ions present in the electrolyte with the Au and graphene electrodes was investigated by EQCM and revealed less electrostatic interaction of graphene with these ions in solution compared to the metal (Au) surface.