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Birefringence measurement for validation of simulation of precision glass molding process

: Pallicity, T.D.; Vu, A.-T.; Ramesh, K.; Mahajan, P.; Liu, G.; Dambon, O.


Journal of the American Ceramic Society 100 (2017), No.10, pp.4680-4698
ISSN: 0002-7820
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IPT ()

During fabrication of glass lens by precision glass molding (PGM), residual stresses are setup, which adversely affect the optical performance of lens. Residual stresses can be obtained by measuring the residual birefringence. Numerical simulation is used in the industry to optimize the manufacturing process. Material properties of glass, contact conductance and friction coefficient at the glass-mold interface are important parameters needed for simulations. In literature, these values are usually assumed without enough experimental justifications. Here, the viscoelastic thermo-rheological simple (TRS) behavior of glass is experimentally characterized by the four-point bending test. Contact conductance and friction coefficient at P-SK57™ glass and Pt-Ir coated WC mold interface are experimentally measured. A plano-convex lens of P-SK57™ glass is fabricated by PGM for two different cooling rates and whole field birefringence of the finished lens is measured by digital photoelasticity. The fabrication process is simulated using finite element method. The simulation is validated, for different stages of PGM process, by comparing the load acting on the mold and displacement of the molds. At the end of the process, the birefringence distribution is compared with the experimental data. A novel plotting scheme is developed for computing birefringence from FE simulation for any shape of lens.