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FXII promotes proteolytic processing of the LRP1 ectodomain

: Wujak, L.; Hesse, C.; Sewald, K.; Jonigk, D.; Braubach, P.; Warnecke, G.; Fieguth, H.-G.; Braun, A.; Lochnit, G.; Markart, P.; Schaefer, L.; Wygrecka, M.


Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects 1861 (2017), No.8, pp.2088-2098
ISSN: 0304-4165
ISSN: 1872-8006
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

Factor XII (FXII) is a serine protease that is involved in activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation, the kallikrein-kinin system and the complement cascade. Although the binding of FXII to the cell surface has been demonstrated, the consequence of this event for proteolytic processing of membrane-anchored proteins has never been described.
The effect of FXII on the proteolytic processing of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) ectodomain was tested in human primary lung fibroblasts (hLF), alveolar macrophages (hAM) and in human precision cut lung slices (hPCLS). The identity of generated LRP1 fragments was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Activity of FXII and gelatinases was measured by S-2302 hydrolysis and zymography, respectively.
Here, we demonstrate a new function of FXII, namely its ability to process LRP1 extracellular domain. Incubation of hLF, hAM, or hPCLS with FXII resulted in the accumulation of LRP1 ectodom ain fragments in conditioned media. This effect was independent of metalloproteases and required FXII proteolytic activity. Binding of FXII to hLF surface induced its conversion to FXIIa and protected FXIIa against inactivation by a broad spectrum of serine protease inhibitors. Preincubation of hLF with collagenase I impaired FXII activation and, in consequence, LRP1 cleavage. FXII-triggered LRP1 processing was associated with the accumulation of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in conditioned media.
FXII controls LRP1 levels and function at the plasma membrane by modulating processing of its ectodomain.
General significance
FXII-dependent proteolytic processing of LRP1 may exacerbate extracellular proteolysis and thus promote pathological tissue remodeling.