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Technological structures and performance as reflected by patent indicators

: Frietsch, R.; Schmoch, U.


Schmoch, U.; Rammer, C.; Legler, H.:
National systems of innovation in comparison : Structure and performance indicators for knowledge societies
Berlin: Springer Netherland, 2006
Akz: isi06-b32
ISBN: 1-402-04917-X
Book Article
Fraunhofer ISI ()

This chapter uses patent applications as an innovation indicator and compares the trends and Structures of twelve countries, analysing so-called tri-adic patents äs a first concept. According to this approach, the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, and Switzerland are the top countries in relative terms, whereas the USA, Japan, and Germany are the leading countries in absolute terms. As a second concept, applications at the European Patent Office (EPO) were investigated with regard to filings in R&D-intensive areas. At the EPO, an upsurge in the second half of the 1990s can be observed which is triggered by all countries in a similar way, but with some new players. This development caused the largest applicants to re-shape their portfolios. Finally, looking at international technology co-operations of German inventors, this mode of knowledge production proves to have gained importance. Common languages, local proximity, and technological competence of the partners distinctly support technology co-operation.