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EULAide: Interpretation of end-user license agreements using ontology-based information extraction

: Nejad, N.M.; Scerri, S.; Auer, S.; Sibarani, E.M.


Association for Computing Machinery -ACM-:
12th International Conference on Semantic Systems, SEMANTiCS 2016. Proceedings : Leipzig, Germany, September 12 - 15, 2016
New York: ACM, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-4503-4752-5
International Conference on Semantic Systems (SEMANTiCS) <12, 2016, Leipzig>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IAIS ()

Ignoring End-User License Agreements (EULAs) for online services due to their length and complexity is a risk undertaken by the majority of online and mobile service users. This paper presents an Ontology-Based Information Extraction (OBIE) method for EULA term and phrase extraction to facilitate a better understanding by humans. An ontology capturing important terms and relationships has been developed and used to guide the OBIE process. Through a feedback cycle we have improved its domain-specific coverage by identifying additional concepts. In the detection and extraction, we focus on three key rights and conditions: permission, prohibition and duty. We present the EULAide system, which comprises a custom information extraction pipeline and a number of custom extraction rules tailored for EULA processing. To evaluate our approach, we created and manually annotated a corpus of 20 well-known licenses. For the gold standard we achieved an Inter-Annotator Agreement (IAA) of 90%, resulting in 193 permissions, 185 prohibitions and 168 duties. An evaluation of the OBIE pipeline against this gold standard resulted in an F-measure of 70-74% which, in the context of the IAA, proves the feasibility of the approach.