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Use: What is needed to support sustainability?

 
: Mikkelsen, R.L.; Binder, C.R.; Frossard, E.; Brand, F.S.; Scholz, R.W.; Vilsmaier, U.

:

Scholz, R.W.; Ulrich, A.E.; Brand, F.S.; Roy, A.H.; Hellums, D.T. ; Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung -ISC-, Project Group Materials Recycling and Resource -IWKS-, Alzenau:
Sustainable phosphorus management : A global transdisciplinary roadmap
Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, 2014
ISBN: 978-94-007-7249-6 (Print)
ISBN: 978-94-007-7250-2 (Online)
pp.207-246
English
Book Article
Fraunhofer ISC ()

Abstract
Increased demands for agricultural output per unit of land area must be met in a way that encourages improved efficiency and better stewardship of natural resources, including phosphate rock. Modern crops remove between 5 and 35 kg P/ha, with P removal exceeding 45 kg P/ha for high-yielding maize. In situations such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where soil fertility is low and P removal exceeds average inputs of 2 kg P/ha/year, the resulting nutrient depletion severely restricts yields (e.g., maize yields < 1,000 kg/ha/year) and accelerates soil degradation. In other regions, excessive P inputs produce economic inefficiencies and increase the risk of P loss, with negative environmental consequences. During the year of application, plants recover 15–25 % of the added P, with the remaining fraction converting to less soluble forms or residual P which becomes plant available over time. Improving P efficiency requires a balance between the imperatives to produce more food while minimizing P losses. Utilizing transdisciplinary approaches, a number of social, economic, and environmental goals can be simultaneously achieved if progress is made toward short- and long-term food security and global P sustainability. This chapter provides an overview of efforts to improve P use efficiency in agriculture ranging from promising germplasm, improved crop, and soil management scenarios, additives in animal diets to reduce P inputs and surplus P in the manure, and opportunities for P recycling in food and household waste. Challenges and opportunities associated with each option are discussed and transdisciplinary case studies outlined.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-441879.html