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Investigation of Robot-Human Impact

: Oberer, S.; Malosio, M.; Schraft, R.D.

VDI-Wissensforum GmbH; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Robotik:
Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Robotics. ISR 2006, 37th International Symposium on Robotics, and ROBOTIK 2006, 4th German Conference on Robotics : May 15-17, 2006, München: Visions are Reality
Düsseldorf: VDI-Verlag, 2006 (VDI-Berichte 1956)
ISBN: 3-18-091956-6
17 pp. (CD-ROM), Abstract pp. 87 (Band)
Joint Conference on Robotics <2006, München>
International Symposium on Robotics (ISR) <37, 2006, München>
German Conference on Robotics (ROBOTIK) <4, 2006, München>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IPA ()
Mensch-Roboter-Kooperation; human-robot; robot human interaction; robot assistant; Robotersystem; Crashtest; Sicherheit

Due to the introduction of assistant robot systems, the complete separation of the human from the robot´s workspace is no longer the only option for operation. Therefore, the discussion on the safety assessment of robotic systems needs to be promoted. The injuries a human can suffer from in an unintended collision must be identified and evaluated together with possible enhancements in design and control, to minimise the hazardous potential of robot systems.
The aim of the reported research is to strengthen the awareness for the necessity of impact evaluations of robot systems, to assess the injury severity for a human. Whereas it is widely accepted in the automotive industry to take a standardised sample of crash tests scenarios that are evaluated on anthropomorphic test devices, so called crash test dummies, robotics science still lack uniform tests that can be carried out for different systems.
After the discussing the necessity for safety assessments in chapter 1, chapter 2 proposes a method to rate the safety performance according to scoring systems that are established by automotive authorities. They allow a relative measurement of the system safety based on injury indices. The knowledge from and the procedures of the automotive industry on injury evaluation from impact tests is introduced to robotics. This provides an important contribution for the safety assessment of robot systems for human-robot cooperation. In chapter 3 two simulation approaches for the quantitative computation of injury severity, including dummy models, based on the Finite Element Method and Multibody Dynamics are introduced. Their ability to conduct robot-human crash tests is presented. The impact studies are based on the evaluation of the head impacts, analysing the head injury criteria (HIC), to show its applicability to robotics. Also its limitations are presented by simulation results, so that in chapter 4 the further research direction for injury index evaluation in robotics is proposed.