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Translational models for vascular cognitive impairment: A review including larger species

: Hainsworth, Atticus H.; Allan, Stuart M.; Boltze, Johannes; Cunningham, Catriona; Farris, Chad; Head, Elizabeth; Ihara, Masafumi; Isaacs, Jeremy D.; Kalaria, Raj N.; Lesnik Oberstein, Saskia A.M.; Moss, Mark B.; Nitzsche, Björn; Rosenberg, Gary A.; Rutten, Julie W.; Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita; Troen, Aron M.

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BMC medicine 15 (2017), No.1, Art. 16, 12 pp.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IZI ()
Fraunhofer EMB ( Fraunhofer EMB) ()
vascular dementia; vascular cognitive impairment; VCID; experimental models; in vivo models; translational models

Disease models are useful for prospective studies of pathology, identification of molecular and cellular mechanisms, pre-clinical testing of interventions, and validation of clinical biomarkers. Here, we review animal models relevant to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). A synopsis of each model was initially presented by expert practitioners. Synopses were refined by the authors, and subsequently by the scientific committee of a recent conference (International Conference on Vascular Dementia 2015). Only peer-reviewed sources were cited. Methods: We included models that mimic VCI-related brain lesions (white matter hypoperfusion injury, focal ischaemia, cerebral amyloid angiopathy) or reproduce VCI risk factors (old age, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia, high-salt/high-fat diet) or reproduce genetic causes of VCI (CADASIL-causing Notch3 mutations). Conclusions: We concluded that (1) translational models may reflect a VCI-relevant pathological process, while not ful ly replicating a human disease spectrum; (2) rodent models of VCI are limited by paucity of white matter; and (3) further translational models, and improved cognitive testing instruments, are required.