Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.

A laser induced forward transfer process for selective boron emitters

: Fernandez-Robledo, S.; Nekarda, J.; Büchler, A.


Solar energy materials and solar cells 161 (2017), pp.397-406
ISSN: 0927-0248
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
PV Produktionstechnologie und Qualitätssicherung; Photovoltaik; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Dotierung und Diffusion; boron; LIFT; solar cells; doping; Emitter

In this work, we present a novel technological approach to form highly boron-doped selective emitters. The selective emitters are formed by using a Laser Induced Forward Transfer Doping (DLIFT) process, which allows precise adjustment of the doping profile by tuning the laser parameters and choosing an appropriate doping source. Surface dopant concentrations of up to Ns≈1×1021 cm−3 were achieved by using DLIFT. Subsequent BBr3 tube furnace diffusion was performed to form a low surface concentration (Ns≈1×1019 cm−3) homogeneous emitter. In comparison to the conventionally applied BBr3 tube diffusion, an increase in open circuit voltage of up to 6 mV is predicted based on the photoluminescence measurements performed after passivation, screen-printing and firing processes. Simulations suggest that this voltage gain is most possibly due to a lower emitter saturation current density (j0e) of the highly doped DLIFT samples compared to the BBr3 diffusion samples. Moreover, it is observed that the laser-induced defects are reduced successfully after a subsequent boron tribromide (BBr3) tube diffusion, which is used to form the homogeneous emitter after the DLIFT process. The micro Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the compressive stress of −200 MPa in the silicon crystal lattice after DLIFT process is released by the subsequent BBr3 tube diffusion. These results demonstrate that the DLIFT process in combination with the conventionally applied BBr3 tube diffusion can be an effective approach to form selective boron emitters in high efficiency n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells.