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Offshore Wind Energy

: Strach-Sonsalla, M.; Stammler, M.; Wenske, J.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.


Dhanak, M.R.:
Springer Handbook of Ocean Engineering
Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016 (Springer Handbooks)
ISBN: 978-3-319-16648-3 (Print)
ISBN: 978-3-319-16649-0 (Online)
Book Article
Fraunhofer IWES ()

In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase.
This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components – including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics – are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided.
The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT – more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine – as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.