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The enigma of ceramide synthase regulation in mammalian cells

: Wegner, M.-S.; Schiffmann, S.; Parnham, M.J.; Geisslinger, G.; Grösch, S.


Progress in lipid research 63 (2016), pp.93-119
ISSN: 0163-7827 (print)
ISSN: 0079-6832 (print)
ISSN: 1873-2194 (online)
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IME ()

Ceramide synthases (CerS) are key enzymes in the lipid metabolism of eukaryotic cells. Their products, ceramides (Cer), are components of cellular membranes but also mediate signaling functions in physiological processes such as proliferation, skin barrier function and cerebellar development. In pathophysiological processes such as multiple sclerosis and tumor progression, ceramide levels are altered, which can be ascribed, partly, to dysregulation of CerS gene transcription. Most publications deal with the effects of altered ceramide levels on physiological and pathophysiological processes, but the regulation of the appropriate CerS is frequently not investigated. This is insufficient for the clarification of the role of ceramides, because most ceramide species are generated by at least two CerS. The mechanisms of CerS regulation are manifold and it seems that each CerS isoform is regulated individually. For this reason, we discuss the different CerS separately in this review.