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Upconversion in a Bragg structure: Photonic effects of a modified local density of states and irradiance on luminescence and upconversion quantum yield

: Hofmann, C.; Herter, B.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Goldschmidt, J.C.

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Optics Express 24 (2016), No.13, pp.14895-14914
ISSN: 1094-4087
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Photovoltaik; Neuartige Photovoltaik-Technologien; Photonenmanagement; D photonic structure; stack; density of photon states; yield; upconversion

In this paper, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the two photonic effects of a Bragg stack - a modified local density of photon states (LDOS) and an enhanced local irradiance - on the upconversion (UC) luminescence and quantum yield of the upconverter β-NaYF4 doped with 25% Er3+. The investigated Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of TiO2 and Poly(methylmethacrylate), the latter containing upconverter nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined input parameters, the photonic effects are first simulated separately and subsequently coupled in a rate equation model, describing the dynamics of the UC processes within β-NaYF4:25% Er3+. With this integrated simulation model, the Bragg stack design is optimized to maximize either the UC quantum yield (UCQY) or UC luminescence. We find that in an optimized Bragg stack, due to the modified LDOS, the maximum UCQY is enhanced from 14% to 16%, compared to an unstructured layer of upconverter material. Additionally, this maximum UCQY can already be reached at an incident irradiance as low as 100 W/m2. With a Bragg stack design that maximizes UC luminescence, enhancement factors of up to 480 of the UC luminescence can be reached.