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High-efficiency n-type silicon solar cells: Advances in PassDop technology and NiCu plating on boron emitter

: Steinhauser, B.; Kamp, M.; Brand, A.A.; Jäger, U.; Bartsch, J.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.


IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 6 (2016), No.2, pp.419-425
ISSN: 2156-3381
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Photovoltaik; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Oberflächen - Konditionierung; Passivierung; Lichteinfang; Kontaktierung und Strukturierung; Herstellung und Analyse von hocheffizienten Solarzellen; n-type; Ni-plating; passivation

An approach for n-type passivated emitter and rear locally diffused (PERL) solar cells is presented that combines the PassDop technology with Ni- and Cu-plated front contacts. As a step toward an eased industrial implementation, a new PassDop layer-based on a-SiNx:P is presented and compared with the original layer based on a-SiCx:P. We show that the PassDop concept can be used as a rear-side approach for these solar cells that reach energy-conversion efficiencies up to 23.5% on a small-area (2 x 2 cm(2)) when using the layer based on a-SiCx:P, and 22.8% when using the layer based on a-SiNx:P. By applying the same technology on a larger scale, we achieved efficiencies that exceed 22% on 143.2 cm(2). We show that Ni-plating on boron emitters allows for excellent contact properties. With laser contact opening in conjunction with Ni-and Cu-plating, similar results for photolithographic opening (TiPdAg seed layer and Ag-plating) can be reached. Combining these technologies, cells are presented using PassDop as the rear-side approach and Ni-plating to contact the boron emitter with first results to achieve up to 21% cell efficiency on 148.6 cm(2).