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Aligned immobilization of proteins using AC electric fields

: Laux, Eva-Maria; Knigge, Xenia; Bier, Frank F.; Wenger, Christian; Hölzel, Ralph


Small 12 (2016), No.11, pp.1514-1520
ISSN: 1613-6810
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IZI ()
alternating current electroosmotic flow; dielectrophoresis; enhanced green fluorescent protein; molecular alignment; nanomanipulation

Protein molecules are aligned and immobilized from solution by AC electric fields. In a single-step experiment, the enhanced green fluorescent proteins are immobilized on the surface as well as at the edges of planar nanoelectrodes. Alignment is found to follow the molecules' geometrical shape with their longitudinal axes parallel to the electric field. Simultaneous dielectrophoretic attraction and AC electroosmotic flow are identified as the dominant forces causing protein movement and alignment. Molecular orientation is determined by fluorescence microscopy based on polarized excitation of the proteins' chromophores. The chromophores' orientation with respect to the whole molecule supports X-ray crystal data.