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The impact of defects on the capacity of timber joints with glued-in rods

: Gonzales, E.; Tannert, T.; Vallee, T.


International journal of adhesion and adhesives 65 (2016), pp.33-40
ISSN: 0143-7496
ISSN: 1879-0127
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IFAM ()

Glued-in rods are an increasingly used technical solution for numerous structural applications in timber engineering, and demonstrate the potential of adhesively bonded connections. During the insertion process the adhesive fills a very narrow gap over significant anchorage contact area, raising concerns that manufacturing defects may impact the structural performance of the bonded joint, namely the possible lack of adhesion resulting from inadequate preparation of the joint on site. Previous studies on the effect of bonding defects on the capacity of bonded joints identified a nuanced relationship that depends on the ductility of the adhesive. This paper presents experimental evidence that sheds light on the relationship between defects and capacity of glued timber joints. Joints composed of softwood glulam members and mild steel glued-in threaded rods were manufactured with two types of defects likely to be encountered on-site: i) rods placed at an angle inside drill hole instead of aligned with the joint axis, and ii) rod placed against the side of the drill hole instead of fully centered. To establish performance benchmarks a first phase studied the influence of the anchorage length and the rod diameter using three different adhesives. The effect of these defects on joint capacity was investigated with three different adhesives in combination with three different rod anchorage lengths. The investigations demonstrated that joints with sufficient rod anchorage (herein 10 times the rod diameter) do not exhibit a statistically significant loss of capacity, if compared to defect free joints. These results can contribute towards better understanding of the influence that the studied parameters have on the performance on timber joints with glued-in rods, as well as to translate this information to promote the development of further applications.