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Birefringence and refractive indices of wurtzite GaN in the transparency range

: Shokhovets, S.; Himmerlich, M.; Kirste, L.; Leach, J.H.; Krischok, S.


Applied Physics Letters 107 (2015), No.9, Art. 092104, 5 pp.
ISSN: 0003-6951 (Print)
ISSN: 1077-3118
ISSN: 1931-9401 (online)
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IAF ()

Birefringence and anisotropic refractive indices of wurtzite GaN within the spectral range from 0.58 eV to 3.335 eV were determined combining optical retardation and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements on a series of undoped m- and c-plane GaN bulk substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. It is observable that the birefringence has a maximum close to the absorption edge and a weak broad minimum in near-IR range. A quantitative explanation of the whole data is given in terms of contributions to the optical response of GaN due to discrete excitons, Coulomb enhanced band-to-band optical transitions near the E(0) critical point of the band structure, high-energy optical transitions, and infrared active optical phonon modes which are different for the ordinary and extraordinary waves both in magnitude and in spectral dependence.