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Grain boundary segregation in multicrystalline silicon: Correlative characterization by EBSD, EBIC, and atom probe tomography

 
: Stoffers, A.; Cojocaru-Mirédin, O.; Seifert, W.; Zaefferer, S.; Riepe, S.; Raabe, D.

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Progress in Photovoltaics 23 (2015), No.12, pp.1742-1753
ISSN: 1062-7995
English
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()

Abstract
This study aims to better understand the influence of crystallographic structure and impurity decoration on the recombination activity at grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon. A sample of the upper part of a multicrystalline silicon ingot with intentional addition of iron and copper has been investigated. Correlative electron-beam-induced current, electron backscatter diffraction, and atom probe tomography data for different types of grain boundaries are presented. For a symmetric coherent 3 twin boundary, with very low recombination activity, no impurities are detected. In case of a non-coherent (random) high-angle grain boundary and higher order twins with pronounced recombination activity, carbon and oxygen impurities are observed to decorate the interface. Copper contamination is detected for the boundary with the highest recombination activity in this study, a random high-angle grain boundary located in the vicinity of a triple junction. The 3D atom probe tomography study presented here is the first direct atomic scale identification and quantification of impurities decorating grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon. The observed deviations in chemical decoration and induced current could be directly linked with different crystallographic structures of silicon grain boundaries. Hence, the current work establishes a direct correlation between grain boundary structure, atomic scale segregation information, and electrical activity. It can help to identify interface-property relationships for silicon interfaces that enable grain boundary engineering in multicrystalline silicon.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-352510.html