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Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

: Leonards, H.; Engelhardt, S.; Hoffmann, A.; Pongratz, L.; Schriever, S.; Bläsius, J.; Wehner, M.; Gillner, A.

Postprint urn:nbn:de:0011-n-3436176 (510 KByte PDF)
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Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.
Created on: 24.11.2015

Helvajian, H. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Laser 3D Manufacturing II : 10-12 February 2015, San Francisco, California
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2015 (Proceedings of SPIE 9353)
ISBN: 978-1-62841-443-1
Paper 93530F, 7 pp.
Conference "Laser 3D Manufacturing" <2, 2015, San Francisco/Calif.>
Conference Paper, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ILT ()

The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single- photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion and surface modifications using bifunctional crosslinkers are presented with advantages, drawbacks and a general outlook.