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Enzymatic degumming of crude Jatropha oil: Evaluation of impact factors on the removal of phospholipids

: Gofferjé, Gabriele; Motulewicz, J.; Stäbler, Andreas; Herfellner, Thomas; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Flöter, E.


Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society : JAOCS 91 (2014), No.12, pp.2135-2141
ISSN: 0003-021X
ISSN: 1558-9331
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IVV ()

Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in non-edible oil, and this plant has received much interest in recent years, especially with respect to biodiesel production. Owing to the high content of phospholipids, crude jatropha oil has to be refined before further use. Conventional refining processes have several environmental and energetic shortcomings. Thus, the search for alternative degumming methods has become relevant. This study compares the enzymatic degumming of screw-pressed crude jatropha oil with Lecitase Ultra (phospholipase A1) and LysoMax (phospholipase A2). Degumming with phospholipase A2 was less effective that degumming with phospholipase A1. Phospholipase A1 showed the highest reaction rate at 50 °C, 700 rpm stirring, 3 mL of water per 100 g of oil, and with 75 ppm of added phospholipase. To ensure optimum enzyme activity, the pH was adjusted to 5. The phosphorus content was reduced continuously for reaction times up to 3 h. The residual phosphorus content was found to be independent of its initial level. Laboratory experiments showed that enzymatic degumming of jatropha oil with phospholipase A1 at the adapted parameters enables the phosphorus content to be reduced to levels below 4 ppm.