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Sensitivity comparison of fish and daphnia toxicity - evaluation of ecotoxicological testing strategies and chronic fish testing

 
: May, Martin; Drost, W.; Germer, S.; Juffernholz, T.; Hahn, Stefan

Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry -SETAC-:
SETAC Europe 24th Annual Meeting 2014. Abstract book : Science across bridges, borders and boundaries, Basel, Switzerland, 11-15 May 2014
Brussels: SETAC Europe, 2014
ISSN: 2309-8031
pp.333, WE285
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC Annual Meeting) <24, 2014, Basel>
English
Abstract
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

Abstract
For environmental risk assessment predicted no effect concentrations for each compartment are derived representing concentrations below which no unacceptable effects are expected. The PNECs are usually derived from laboratory effect studies by applying an assessment factor on the lowest determined effect value. With regard to the aquatic compartment experimental data on chronic fish toxicity are still limited, and an increased range of acute to chronic ratio is expected as fish studies cover different species, exposure times and endpoints. Moreover, the question arises whether the chronic toxicity of fish can be adequately covered by other trophic levels as species specific mechanisms of toxicity such as effects on the endocrine system or on developmental stages may contribute to the toxicity of a chemical. At the same time animal testing should be avoided. In conclusion, are the existing testing strategies adequate, and in which case is chronic fish testing necessary? The aim of this study is an evaluation of the integrated test strategy according to REACH guidance and a review of the reliability of conclusions from acute to chronic effects of chemicals on the basis of a data analysis of already existing toxicity tests on Daphnia and fish. Acute and chronic studies from about 250 experimental datasets for both trophic levels were evaluated. The dataset is based on data from the OECD eChemPortal and from the Information System Chemical Safety database (ICS) of the German Federal Environment Agency. Only studies conducted according to the European Union Technical Guidance Documents were considered. ACR correlation across both trophic levels as well as a correlation between the toxicity level and baseline toxicity based on the octanol-water partition coefficient is investigated. Based on species sensitivity comparison of acute tests the results of the data analysis indicate that chronic fish testing can be avoided in most cases without underestimated environmentally hazardous substances. But chronic fish testing will still be required for a protective risk assessment. The presented classification scheme may contribute to a scientifically justified testing strategy approach.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-323712.html