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Lymph nodes

: Kuper, Frieke C.; Schaudien, Dirk; Parker, George


Vohr, Hans-Werner (Hrsg.):
Encyclopedia of immunotoxicology
Berlin: Springer, 2014
ISBN: 978-3-642-27786-3 (Online)
ISBN: 978-3-642-54597-9
Book Article
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
lymph nodes; antigen presentation; cortex; follicles; germinal centers; paracortex; medullary cord

Lymph nodes are secondary lymphoid organs (peripheral lymphoid organs) located in the course of lymphatic vessels. They filter the lymph during its passage from the tissues and organs to the thoracic duct. They are sites of initiation of immune reactions.
Lymph nodes are found in mammals as rounded to bean-shaped lymphoid structures. They are surrounded by a collagenous capsule from which trabeculae enter into the node and connected by lymph vessels. The basic anatomical features are the cortex/paracortex and medulla (Sainte-Marie et al. 1990). The cortex/paracortex is the site of antigen encounter and initiation of immune reactions (Elmore 2006). The products of an immune response (activated cells, effector lymphocytes, inflammatory mediators) are generated in the medulla. The cortex consists of follicles, mainly just underneath the lymph node capsule, and interfollicular areas which fuse with the paracor ...