Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.

High-resolution proximity lithography for nano-optical components

: Stürzebecher, Lorenz; Fuchs, Frank; Zeitner, Uwe Detlef; Tünnermann, Andreas


Microelectronic engineering 132 (2015), pp.120-134
ISSN: 0167-9317
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IOF ()

Mask aligner lithography, based on shadow printing, is one of the most natural approaches to micro-fabrication. For high-yield processing, however, contact-free proximity exposures are required, which have stringent resolution limitations. Therefore, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) for proximity lithography have been a field of extensive research over the past four decades. Refinements like X-ray proximity lithography, near field holography (NFH), phase-shifting masks (PSM), Talbot lithography (TL), holographic lithography, displacement Talbot lithography (D-TL), and rigorously optimized phase-shifting masks (RO-PSM) have been proposed to combine flexible and economical process conditions with high resolution potential. In conjunction with ongoing technical innovations for the mask-to-substrate distance metrology, leveling, illumination optics, and photomask technology, the application potential of proximity lithography has extended significantly compared with the established process of shadow printing. This review provides a comprehensive overview of resolution enhancement techniques and technical innovations in mask aligner lithography, especially the fabrication of periodic structures for nano-optical components. The review concludes with a comparative discussion of the different techniques.