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3-D scanning of sea freight containers using MeV X-rays

: Firsching, M.; Bohnel, M.; Errmann, G.; Fuchs, T.O.J.; Hassler, U.; Heusinger, V.; Hofmann, T.; Kasperl, S.; Moser, S.; Reims, N.; Salamon, M.; Schon, T.; Schorr, C.; Schropfer, S.; Sukowski, F.; Tigkos, K.; Uhlmann, N.; Hanke, R.


IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society:
2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (2013 NSS/MIC) : Seoul, South Korea, 27 October - 2 November 2013. In conjunction with the 20th International Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors (RTSD)
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-4799-0533-1
ISBN: 978-1-4799-0534-8
ISBN: 978-1-4799-0532-4
Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) <60, 2013, Seoul>
Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) <2013, Seoul>
International Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors (RTSD) <20, 2013, Seoul>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer EMI ()

The ECSIT project analyses how innovative inspection technologies can lead to an enhanced container security and how these technologies can be embedded into a holistic concept. It has the goal to analyze the possibility and feasibility for 100% scanning of all containers which are shipped to US ports and to develop a concept for integrating necessary infrastructure. A key element of the entire concept is the scanning technology itself. MeV X-ray technology using a linear accelerator as radiation source provides the feasibility to visualize the content of a container without opening it. If a 2-D radiography is ambiguous, a 3-D evaluation of the respective location could be conducted. MeV X-ray computed tomography (CT) is such a method to provide 3-D information of the content of a container. In the context of ECSIT, Fraunhofer EZRT has developed the concept of such a continuative high energy X-ray scanning stage and evaluated its application to sea freight containers. In this paper different approaches for measuring a 3-D tomographic volume data set of objects which are very heavy and thus difficult to move in arbitrary directions will be discussed. Three different geometrical principles for data acquisition were evaluated: laminography, limited angle CT, and a gantry CT. The volume data sets were reconstructed by using a standard filtered back projection and different algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART). Real 3-D volume data of large objects measured with the set-up described above are presented. As test objects a real container packed with various typical goods like furniture or consumer electronics as well as simulated threats like a bomb mock-up was used.