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Toxic effects of MWCNT in vivo and in vitro

: Schlichting, Anja; Ziemann, Christina; Leonhardt, A.; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Schaudien, Dirk; Bellmann, Bernd

The Toxicologist 52 (2013), No.1, pp.98, Abstract PS 460
ISSN: 0731-9193
Society of Toxicology (Annual Meeting) <52, 2013, San Antonio/Tex.>
Journal Article, Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ITEM ()

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are discussed to exhibit a toxic potential depending on their length and fiber-like shape. For this reason, potential adverse biological effects in vivo (rat) and in vitro (human peritoneal mesothelial LP9/TERT-1 cells) of MWCNT are investigated in a project funded by the German BMBF (contract No. 03X0109A). In this project MWCNT data are compared with long amosite asbestos as a positive control and more particle-like MWCNT (Baytubes®, milled MWCNT, and Printex 90) as negative controls. For this study costum made MWCNT with different length and diameter were produced. To investigate the carcinogenic potential of these MWCNT, they were suspended in artificial lung-like medium using a sonotrode. The separated MWCNT were applied to the rats by intraperitoneal injection. In addition to the carcinogenicity study, the proliferation of cells in the diaphragm was investigated as a short time screening test after 3 month, using a BrdU method. To determine cytotoxicity in vitro LP9/TERT-1 cells were incubated for 24h with the same MWCNT, suspended in culture medium, and the toxic potential was estimated by cell counting and subsequent calculation of the relative increase in cell count (RICC). Suspension, size, and distribution of MWCNT were always monitored by SEM. CNT3 (length: 8.57 m; diameter: 0,085 ?m) and long amosite (length: 13.95 m; diameter: 0.39 m) led to significant thickening of the diaphragm, as compared to the negative control. With CNT2 (length: 10.24 m; diameter: 0.04) a high amount of BrdU positive cells were noted. In the in vitro study part both CNT1 (length: 7.91 m; diameter: 0.037 m), CNT2, CNT3 and long amosite asbestos mediated strong reduction in cell number, compared to the particle controls, indicating a marked cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, some MWCNT mediate enhanced proliferation in rat diaphragm which may result in mesothelioma development and certain MWCNT exhibit a cytotoxic potential in mesothelial cells in vitro.