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Quantitative modeling of fluorescent emission in photonic crystals

: Gutmann, J.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.


Physical Review. B 88 (2013), No.20, Art. 205118, 9 pp.
ISSN: 0163-1829
ISSN: 1098-0121
ISSN: 0556-2805
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Farbstoff; Organische und Neuartige Solarzellen; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Alternative Photovoltaik-Technologien; Photonenmanagement; Industrielle und neuartige Solarzellenstrukturen; Neuartige Konzepte; crystal; Kristall; Fluoreszenz; Fluorescence

Photonic crystals affect the photon emission of embedded emitters due to an altered local density of photon states (LDOS). We review the calculation of the LDOS from eigenmodes in photonic crystals and propose a rate equation model for fluorescent emitters to determine the changes in emission induced by the LDOS. We show how to calculate the modifications of three experimentally accessible characteristics: emission spectrum (spectral redistribution), emitter quantum yield, and fluorescence lifetime. As an example, we present numerical results for the emission of the dye Rhodamine B inside an opal photonic crystal. For such photonic crystals with small permittivity contrast, the LDOS is only weakly modified, resulting in rather small changes. We point out that in experiments, however, usually only part of the emitted light is detected, which can have a very different spectral distribution (e.g., due to a photonic band gap in the direction of detection). We demonstrate the calculation of this detected spectrum for a typical measurement setup. With this reasoning, we explain the previously not fully understood experimental observation that strong spectral modifications occurred, while at the same time only small changes in lifetime were found. With our approach, the mentioned effects can be quantitatively calculated for fluorescent emitters in any photonic crystal.