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Fabrication of high precision metallic freeform mirrors with magnetorheological finishing (MRF)

: Beier, Matthias; Scheiding, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Andreas; Loose, Roman; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas


Bentley, J.L. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Optifab 2013 : 14-17 October 2013, Rochester, New York
Bellingsham: SPIE, 2013 (Proceedings of SPIE 8884)
ISBN: 978-0-8194-9747-5
Paper 88840S
Conference "Optifab" <2013, Rochester/NY>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IOF ()
Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF); freeform mirror; sub-aperture polishing; metal optic; Computer Generated Hologram (CGH); diamond machining; Power Spectral Density (PSD); electroless nickel plating

The fabrication of complex shaped metal mirrors for optical imaging is a classical application area of diamond machining techniques. Aspherical and freeform shaped optical components up to several 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured with high precision in an acceptable amount of time. However, applications are naturally limited to the infrared spectral region due to scatter losses for shorter wavelengths as a result of the remaining periodic diamond turning structure. Achieving diffraction limited performance in the visible spectrum demands for the application of additional polishing steps. Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) is a powerful tool to improve figure and finish of complex shaped optics at the same time in a single processing step. The application of MRF as a figuring tool for precise metal mirrors is a nontrivial task since the technology was primarily developed for figuring and finishing a variety of other optical materials, such as glasses or glass ceramics. In the presented work, MRF is used as a figuring tool for diamond turned aluminum lightweight mirrors with electroless nickel plating. It is applied as a direct follow-up process after diamond machining of the mirrors. A high precision measurement setup, composed of an interferometer and an advanced Computer Generated Hologram with additional alignment features, allows for precise metrology of the freeform shaped optics in short measuring cycles. Shape deviations less than 150 nm PV / 20 nm rms are achieved reliably for freeform mirrors with apertures of more than 300 mm. Characterization of removable and induced spatial frequencies is carried out by investigating the Power Spectral Density.