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Comprehensive efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes featuring emitter orientation and triplet-to-singlet up-conversion

: Schmidt, T.D.; Setz, D.S.; Flämmich, M.; Frischeisen, J.; Michaelis, D.; Mayr, C.; Rausch, A.F.; Wehlus, T.; Scholz, B.J.; Reusch, T.C.G.; Danz, N.; Brütting, W.


Applied Physics Letters 103 (2013), No.9, Art. 093303, 6 pp.
ISSN: 0003-6951 (Print)
ISSN: 1077-3118
ISSN: 1931-9401 (online)
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IOF ()

We present a method to achieve a consistent, comprehensive efficiency analysis of fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) showing non-isotropic emitter orientation and triplet-to-singlet up-conversion. Combining photoluminescence lifetime and external quantum efficiency measurements on OLEDs with varying cavity length allows for an independent determination of the radiative emitter efficiency under optical as well as electrical excitation. The difference clearly shows a significant enhancement of the singlet exciton fraction to more than 25% under electrical operation. Furthermore, the presented method does not require detailed information about the emitting system and is generally applicable for a comprehensive efficiency analysis of bottom-emitting OLEDs.