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Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy analyses of GaAs/Si interfaces in wafer-bonded multi-junction solar cells

: Häussler, D.; Houben, L.; Essig, S.; Kurttepeli, M.; Dimroth, F.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.; Jäger, W.


Ultramicroscopy 134 (2013), pp.55-61
ISSN: 0304-3991
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Materialien - Solarzellen und Technologie; Silicium-Photovoltaik; III-V und Konzentrator-Photovoltaik; Alternative Photovoltaik-Technologien; III-V Epitaxie und Solarzellen; Solarzellen und Bauelemente; solar cell; bonding; interfaces; STEM/EELS; Farbstoff; Organische und Neuartige Solarzellen

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) investigations have been applied to investigate the structure and composition fluctuations near interfaces in wafer-bonded multi-junction solar cells. Multi-junction solar cells are of particular interest since efficiencies well above 40% have been obtained for concentrator solar cells which are based on III-V compound semiconductors. In this methodologically oriented investigation, we explore the potential of combining aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field STEM imaging (HAADF-STEM) with spectroscopic techniques, such as EELS and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), in order to analyze the effects of fast atom beam (FAB) and ion beam bombardment (IB) activation treatments on the structure and composition of bonding interfaces of wafer-bonded solar cells on Si substrates. Investigations using STEM/EELS are able to measure quantitatively and with high precision the widths and the fluctuations in element distributions within amorphous interface layers of nanometer extensions, including those of light elements. Such measurements allow the control of the activation treatments and thus support assessing electrical conductivity phenomena connected with impurity and dopant distributions near interfaces for optimized performance of the solar cells.