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Mechanism of moisture diffusion, hygroscopic swelling and adhesion degradation in Epoxy Molding Compounds

: Shirangi, M.H.; Fan, X.J.; Michel, B.

International Microelectronics and Packaging Society -IMAPS-:
41st International Symposium on Microelectronics 2008 : November 2-6, 2008, Rhode Island Convention Center, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Reston, Va.: IMAPS, 2008
ISBN: 0-930815-86-6
International Symposium on Microelectronics <41, 2008, Providence/RI>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IZM ()

Epoxy Molding Compounds (EMCs) are widely used as encapsulation materials in semiconductor industry for protecting the IC's/MEMS against the environment. Despite their advantages like low-cost and good mechanical behavior, an important disadvantage of these materials is moisture absorption from the environment. This causes many reliability problems, including interface delamination and 'popcorn' effect during soldering reflow process. In this paper a systematic approach was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of Fickian and non-Fickian moisture absorption in EMCs. Different sample geometries were produced and their mass uptake/loss due to moisture absorption/desorption were investigated. Results reveal a dual-stage moisture uptake during absorption and irreversible residual moisture content upon complete desorption, indicating that some EMCs retain moisture for long time even at elevated temperatures. This residual content is a complex function of sample geometry, b aking temperature and sample sorption history. The hygroscopic swelling was investigated by the means of warpage measurement of Cu/EMC bimaterial beams. A significant permanent change of the dimension of EMCs due to irreversible residual moisture content was observed. This indicates that not all the swelling of samples can be recovered when they are baked in dry conditions. The adhesion of Cu/EMC was also measured for dry and moist samples. The interfacial fracture toughness was obtained using the end-notched flexure (ENF) tests based on interface fracture mechanics. Two mechanisms of adhesion losses were observed. Some of the adhesion loss due to small amount of moisture content was recovered via a proper annealing. However, upon activation of the second saturation phase, none of the adhesion loss was recovered after baking the moist samples.