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Grid integration of photovoltaics and fuel cells

: Schulz, D.; Jahn, M.; Pfeifer, T.


Strzelecki, R.; Benysek, G.:
Power Electronics in Smart Electrical Energy Networks
London: Springer, 2008 (Power Systems)
ISBN: 978-1-84800-318-7
ISBN: 978-1-84800-317-0 (print)
ISSN: 1612-1287
Book Article
Fraunhofer IKTS ()

Photovoltaics (PV) is a renewable technology with the highest theoretical potential. World-wide 5.86 GWp were installed in 2006. Thereof 2,860 MWp are in Germany; 1,709 MWp in Japan and 624 MWp in the United States. These three countries have installed over 89% of the total world PV power. The index p of the power means peak values for a standardized installation of 1,000 W/m2 and a temperature of 25°C. Most of the PV plants work grid connected because of increased tariffs for energy feed-in. Because of their similar output behavior, Fuel Cell (FC) systems are also discussed here. They generate DC output power like PV generators, which must be converted into AC with power electronic converters. FC are usable in different power system applications and for automotive and other mobile technologies. An important advantage is the lack of dangerous emissions. In 2006, 85 MW electrical power from FC was global installed, with 40.8 MW in the United States, 17.1 MW in the Europe an Union (mostly Germany) and 9.9 MW in Japan.