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Trends and gaps in biotechnology policies in European member states since 1994

: Dominguez-Lacasa, I.; Reiß, T.; Senker, J.


Science and public policy 31 (2004), No.5, pp.385-395
ISSN: 0036-8245
ISSN: 0302-3427
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISI ()

Most European national policy systems have gradually intensified their efforts to support the development of the biotechnology knowledge base and its industrial application. The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the national approaches to promote biotechnology in Europe, to explore heterogeneity and general trends in the design and implementation of policy instruments, and finally to identify the gaps in national innovation policies since 1994 in Europe. The paper analyses policy intervention in the four main networks of the biotechnology innovation system: the knowledge base; the industry; the financial system; and the market.