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Fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of a pasty calcium phosphate bone cement under mild conditions

: Lode, A.; Meissner, K.; Luo, Y.; Sonntag, F.; Glorius, S.; Nies, B.; Vater, C.; Despang, F.; Hanke, T.; Gelinsky, M.


Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine 8 (2014), No.9, pp.682-693
ISSN: 1932-6254
ISSN: 1932-7005
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IWS ()

The major advantage of hydroxyapatite (HA)-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) used as bone replacement materials is their setting under physiological conditions without the necessity for thermal treatment that allows the incorporation of biological factors. In the present study, we have combined the biocompatible consolidation of CPCs with the potential of rapid prototyping (RP) techniques to generate calcium phosphate-based scaffolds with defined inner and outer morphology. We demonstrate the application of the RP technique three-dimensional (3D) plotting for the fabrication of HA cement scaffolds. This was realized by utilizing a paste-like CPC (P-CPC) which is stable as a malleable paste and whose setting reaction is initiated only after contact with aqueous solutions. The P-CPC showed good processability in the 3D plotting process and allowed the fabrication of stable3D structures of different geometries with adequate mechanical stability and compressive stren gth. The cytocompatibility of the plotted P-CPC scaffolds was demonstrated in a cell culture experiment with human mesenchymal stem cells. The mild conditions during 3D plotting and post-processing and the realization of the whole procedure under sterile conditions make this approach highly attractive for fabrication of individualized implants with respect to patient-specific requirements by simultaneous plotting of biological components.