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Developing a burner system for low calorific gases in micro gas turbines: An application for small scale decentralized heat and power generation

 
: Leicher, J.; Giese, A.; Gorner, K.; Scherer, V.; Schulzke, T.

International Gas Union:
International Gas Union research conference, IGRC 2011. Vol.2 : Seoul, Korea, 19 - 21 October 2011
Red Hook, NY: Curran, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-622-76385-6
pp.855-864
International Gas Union Research Conference (IGRC) <2011, Seoul>
English
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer UMSICHT Oberhausen ()

Abstract
Gases with a low calorific value (LCV) are produced by many different processes, both natural and industrial. They are released from landfill sites, coal mines or sewage treatment plants, or they may be by-products of industrial processes, for example in the steel or chemical industry. In recent years, these fuel gases have received increasing interest as alternative fuel sources. They are especially suited to small-scale decentralized heat and power generation. The lower calorific values of these gases range from 1 to 3 kWh/m3 (natural gas, for comparison's sake has about 10-12 kWh/m3). This is due to the large amounts of inert components such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide which can be found in these gases, the combustible species usually being methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. While the use of these gases is desirable from both economic and ecological points of view, the utilization of such fuels in technical systems poses some challenges. The composition and hen ce heating values of these gases may change quite drastically over time; also they may contain hazardous substances such as siloxanes or H2S, raising corrosion issues. These issues have to be taken into account when designing a burner system for such fuels. Today, low calorific gases are often utilized in combined heat and power gas engines. However, these engines are restricted to fuel gases with a minimum CH4 content of 38 vol-% for economic reasons. Micro gas turbines (MGT), however, present an interesting alternative to utilize these gases for decentralized heat and power generation since they can handle gases with much lower CH4 contents and varying compositions, an important consideration with low quality fuels. Also, MGTs are efficient at partial loads and can maintain low CO and NOx emissions, making them an interesting option for the utilization of low calorific fuel gases. In the course of a German research project, Gaswarme-Institut e. V. (GWI), in cooperation with the Ruhr-University Boc

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-253982.html