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Energetic reaction of metal carbides - experiments, modelling and application

: Weiser, V.; Kelzenberg, S.; Knapp, S.; Lity, A.; Poth, H.; Raab, A.; Roth, E.

Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie -ICT-, Pfinztal:
Energetic Materials. Characterization and Modeling of Ignition Process, Reaction Behavior and Performance : 44th International Annual Conference of ICT, June 25 - 28, 2013, Karlsruhe, Germany; Proceedings
Pfinztal: Fraunhofer ICT, 2013
Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie (International Annual Conference) <44, 2013, Karlsruhe>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ICT ()

Several elements as Ti and Zr react highly exothermically with carbon to carbide compounds. These products again are able to undertake exothermic combustion with oxygen and air. That qualifies carbide reactions for pyrotechnic mixtures intending afterburning with air. As prominent example spectral countermeasure flares are introduced. They result in high temperatures up to 3000 K, low continuum emission and an intensive beta-band of Co2. Basing on a thermodynamically ranking various element-carbon mixtures were formulated and investigated under different atmospheres in a window bomb and under free atmospheric conditions according to their reaction rate, temperature and spectral emitting species using high-speed cameras and spectrographs in the range from 270 nm to 14µm. In comparison commercial carbides of Al, B, Si, Ti, Zr were burnt in oxygen using the same equipment. By way of exemple a semi-quantitative hot-spot model is used to calculate the reaction propagation rate of different concentrations of Ti/C particles mixtures in combination with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and reaction kinetic data provided by Shteinberg. This analysis results in good agreement of mean reaction rates and maximum temperatures in the total burnable range of 40 to 90% Ti in graphite. Pellets of pyro-organic flare mixtures including Ti + graphite or TiC were prepared and tested in respect to MTV resulting in high temperatures and a spectral emission close to jet plumes of hydrocarbon fuels.