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Development of lead-free silver ink for front contact metallization

: Kalio, A.; Leibinger, M.; Filipovic, A.; Kruger, K.; Glatthaar, M.; Wilde, J.


Solar energy materials and solar cells 106 (2012), pp.51-54
ISSN: 0927-0248
International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics (SiliconPV) <2, 2012, Leuven>
Journal Article, Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Kontaktierung und Strukturierung; Industrielle und neuartige Solarzellenstrukturen

In this paper lead-free silver ink for the front side metallization of silicon solar cells is investigated. Lead is replaced by bismuth. The etching of the silicon nitride anti-reflection coating and the crystallite formation is studied by varying the amount of bismuth oxide added to the ink. Bismuth oxide was either incorporated into the glass frit or added as a powder. The results are compared to our standard lead based standard ink. All inks were applied with aerosol jet printing. For characterization SEM imaging, contact resistance measurements, and the current-voltage-characteristics of the prepared solar cells are used. Concerning the solar cell efficiency, it is found that bismuth glass inks provide a similar efficiency in comparison to the lead based ink.