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Femtosecond pulse written fiber gratings: A new avenue to integrated fiber technology

: Thomas, Jens; Voigtl, Christian; Becker, Ria; Richter, Daniel; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan


Laser & photonics reviews 6 (2012), No.6, pp.709-723
ISSN: 1863-8880
ISSN: 1863-8899
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IOF ()
ultrashort phenomena; fiber Bragg grating; long period fiber gratings; coupled mode theory; fiber laser; sensing

The use of ultrashort laser pulses for fiber grating inscription has many advantages in comparison to continuous wave and long pulse lasers. The most important one is that it allows inscription in nonphotosensitive fiber materials. In this paper the principal inscription techniques and the physical properties of femtosecond (fs) pulse written in-fiber gratings are reviewed. The role of focusing and order walk-off on the inscribed structures is emphasized. A fs pulse written fiber Bragg grating (FBG) also has a unique coupling behavior, due to a refractive index change that is independent from the fiber geometry. Selected applications of such gratings for sensing and fiber lasers are discussed.