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PV-module reflection losses: Measurement, simulation and influence on energy yield and performance ratio

: Preu, R.; Kleiss, G.; Reiche, K.; Bücher, K.

Freiesleben, W.:
Thirteenth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference 1995. Proceedings. Vol.2 : International conference, held at Nice, France 23 - 27 October, 1995
Bedford: Stephens, 1995
ISBN: 0-9521452-7-8
ISBN: 0-9521452-6-X
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference <13, 1995, Nice>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ISE ()

The purpose of this work was to investigate the PV-module energy output losses due to reflection and absorption, particularly for oblique incident insolation, since perpendicular incidence is considered at STC-rating. A set up to measure the relative transmittance of PV-module encapsulations has been put up and measurements have been compared with simulation calculations. The relative transmittance has been weighted with the angular distribution of irradiance for different locations to obtain yearly and seasonal energy rating. The additional energy losses due to oblique incidence has been shown to be dependent on the inclination and location of the module. For Freiburg the calculations yield an additional loss of 4.2 % for a South oriented 90° inclined surface. A gain of approx. 3% in short circuit current could be achieved by the use of structured cell interconnectors for plane glass encapsulations.