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Characterisation and quantification of xanthones from the aril and pericarp of mangosteens (Garcinia mangostana L.) and a mangosteen containing functional beverage by HPLC-DAD-MS n

: Wittenauer, Judith; Falk, Susanne; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold


Food chemistry 134 (2012), No.1, pp.445-452
ISSN: 0308-8146
ISSN: 1873-7072
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IVV ()

Attention on mangosteen fruits as an ingredient of functional products is growing, particularly due to their rich content of xanthones. Whereas mangosteen products containing puree from the entire fruit of Garcinia mangostana L. are considered as novel food in the European Union, such products are widely used in the US due to their high antioxidant potential and traditional consumption in their countries of origin. With special emphasise on the xanthone profile and content, mangosteen pericarp, aril segments and a functional beverage made from whole mangosteens were compared. The fruit parts and the product showed a consistent pattern composed of mainly 7 xanthones, which could be unambiguously identified by LC-MS. Based on collision-induced dissociation experiments, fragmentation pathways of xanthones were suggested. The quantification of 7 derivatives contained in the arils, the pericarp and the functional beverage allowed an estimation of the amounts of bioactives wh ich are ingested by the consumption of fresh mangosteen fruits and beverages produced thereof. Total xanthone content of the pericarp was the highest, revealing its potential as functional ingredient - followed by the aril segments and the functional beverage. It has been shown, that the content of bioactive xanthones in 90 mL of the beverage (i.e. the recommended daily dose) corresponds to about 0.9 g of pericarp and the aril segments (30 g) of a single mangosteen. Since residual parts of pericarp are always ingested after usual peeling of the fruit, xanthone concentrations exceeding those of the nutritional beverage have been ingested, thus allowing to establish a safe history of use.