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Time course of isocyanate emission from curing polyurethane adhesives

: Wirts, M.; Grunwald, D.; Schulze, D.; Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.


Atmospheric environment 37 (2003), No.39-40, pp.5467-5475
ISSN: 0004-6981
ISSN: 1352-2310
Journal Article
Fraunhofer WKI ()
Fraunhofer IFAM ()
diisocyanate; monomer; polyurethane adhesive; polyurethane resin; curing; chamber test

The time course of isocyanate emission from curing polyurethane (PUR) resins and adhesives was studied in two different emission test chambers. The measured emissions were strongly dependent on the type of experiment. The adhesives under investigation contained different types of diisocyanates and are used for different applications, e.g. for fixing of textile floor coverings. The influence of the curing mechanism on emission was studied by comparing the emission curves of one-component adhesives (OCA) and two-component adhesives (TCA). For TCA, the decrease in isocyanate emission was found to follow at two-step process during curing. In the first step, the emission is dominated by surface evaporation, and the decay of emission is mainly caused by the decrease in monomer content due to reaction. In the second step, the release is limited by intenal diffusion. The influence of monomer reactivity on the emission profile could be demonstrated for 2,4'- and 4,4'-MDI. The less-reactive 2,4'-MDI caused prolonged emission. A strong dependence of emission rates on temperature and adhesive viscosity was also obvious. The evaluation of emission rates of different commercially available PUR adhesives showed the highest emission from systems that are applied at high temperatures. The high reactivity of diisocyanates requires special techniques for sampling and analysis. Therefore, an analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS was developed that enables limites of quantiatation of < 5ng/m3 with a sampling volume of 1001.