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S100A8 and S100A9 in cardiovascular biology and disease. Review

: Averill, Michelle M.; Kerkhoff, Claus; Bornfeldt, Karin E.


Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 32 (2012), No.2, pp.223-229
ISSN: 1079-5642
ISSN: 1524-4636
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IZI ()
atherosclerosis; immune system; macrophages; S100A8; S100A9

There is recent and widespread interest in the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules S100A8 and S100A9 in cardiovascular science. These proteins have a number of interesting features and functions. For example, S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) have both intracellular and extracellular actions, they are abundantly expressed in inflammatory and autoimmune states, primarily by myeloid cells but also by other vascular cells, and they modulate inflammatory processes, in part through Toll-like receptor 4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products. S100A8/A9 also have anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. Furthermore, increased plasma levels of S100A8/A9 predict cardiovascular events in humans, and deletion of these proteins partly protects Apoe(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis. Understanding the roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in vascular cell types and the mechanisms whereby these proteins mediate their biological effects may offer new therapeutic strategies to prevent, treat, and predict cardiovascular diseases.