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Respiratory sensitization: Advances in assessing the risk of respiratory inflammation and irritation

: Vandebriel, Rob; Cransveld, Conchita Callant; Crommelin, Daan; Diamant, Zuzana; Glazenburg, Berend; Joos, Guy; Kuper, Frieke; Natsch, Andreas; Nijkamp, Frans; Noteborn, Hub; Pieters, Raymond; Roberts, David; Roggen, Erwin; Rorije, Emiel; Seed, Martin; Sewald, Katharina; Heuvel, Rosette van den; Engelen, Jacqueline van; Verstraelen, Sandra; Loveren, Henk van


Toxicology in vitro 25 (2011), No.7, pp.1251-1258
ISSN: 0887-2333
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
ASAT; respiratory tract; sensitization; integrated testing; QSAR; Rhinitis; asthma; risk assessment; in vitro; in vivo

Respiratory sensitization provides a case study for a new approach to chemical safety evaluation, as the prevalence of respiratory sensitization has increased considerably over the last decades, but animal and/or human experimental/predictive models are not currently available. Therefore, the goal of a working group was to design a road map to develop an ASAT approach for respiratory sensitisers. This approach should aim at (i) creating a database on respiratory functional biology and toxicology, (ii) applying data analyses to understand the multi-dimensional sensitization response, and how this predisposes to respiratory inflammation and irritation, and (iii) building a systems model out of these analyses, adding pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling to predict respiratory responses to low levels of sensitisers. To this end, the best way forward would be to follow an integrated testing approach. Experimental research should be targeted to (i) QSAR-type approaches to relate potential as a respiratory sensitizer to its chemical structure, (ii) in vitro models and (iii) in vitro-in vivo extrapolation/validation.