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Mobile emitter geolocation and tracking using TDOA and FDOA measurements

: Musicki, D.; Kaune, R.; Koch, W.


IEEE transactions on signal processing 58 (2010), No.3, Pt.2, pp.1863-1874
ISSN: 0096-3518
ISSN: 0018-9278
ISSN: 0096-1620
ISSN: 1053-587X
Journal Article
Fraunhofer FKIE

This paper considers recursive tracking of one mobile emitter using a sequence of time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurement pairs obtained by one pair of sensors. We consider only a single emitter without data association issues (no missed detections or false measurements). Each TDOA measurement defines a region of possible emitter locations around a unique hyperbola. This likelihood function is approximated by a Gaussian mixture, which leads to a dynamic bank of Kalman filters tracking algorithm. The FDOA measurements update relative probabilities and estimates of individual Kalman filters. This approach results in a better track state probability density function approximation by a Gaussian mixture, and tracking results near the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Proposed algorithm is also applicable in other cases of nonlinear information fusion. The performance of proposed Gaussian mixture approach is evaluated using a simulation study, and compared with a bank of EKF filters and the Cramér-Rao lower bound.