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Non-linear behaviour of charge-pump phase-locked loops

: Wiegand, C.; Hedayat, C.; Hilleringmann, U.


Advances in radio science 8 (2010), pp.161-166
ISSN: 1684-9965
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ENAS ()

The analysis of the mixed analogue and digital structure of charge-pump phase-locked loops (CP-PLL) is a challenge in modelling and simulation. In most cases the system is designed and characterized using its continuous linear model or its discrete linear model neglecting its non-linear switching behaviour. I.e., the time-varying model is approximated by a time-invariant representation using its average dynamics. Depending on what kind of phase detector is used, the scopes of validity of these approximations are different. Here, a preeminent characterization and simulation technique based on the systems event-driven feature is presented, merging the logical and analogue inherent characteristics of the system. In particular, the high-grade non-linear locking process and the dead-zone are analyzed.